Course Description:  This course surveys early modern history, literature, and philosophy, with a focus on the development of classical Liberalism and the birth of the American Republic.  As such, it is a course in two parts—in the first place, this course will review the (so-called) “Enlightenment” of early modern Europe.  An understanding of this Age of Revolution (1642-1917) in its political, economic, and religious manifestations will facilitate the second part of the course, a consideration of America’s roots and founding, with special emphasis on the Constitution of the United States.

Course Objectives:  Students will:

  1. Acquire a basic understanding of both European and American History in the “Age of Revolution” (names, dates, significant events);
  2. Read, discuss, and evaluate the signal works of literature in this period, understanding their contribution to the overall development of western civilization (Milton, Shakespeare, Dickens, Paine, the French philosophes and the American transcendentalists);
  3. Appreciate the scope, intent, and character of the American Republic, as a unique political reality in western history, while tracing its European heritage (both classical and medieval);
  4. Understand the “modern era” in relationship to both that which came before (the late middle ages) and that which came after (“post”-modernism), with special attention to the modern concepts of “reason” and rationalism.


Course Description: Third year Rhetoric begins with a semester-long immersion into the art and appreciation of poetry.  In the 2nd semester, students will apply the aesthetic principles of this study to their previous understanding of rhetorical technique, in order to produce written compositions that are, in addition to being understandable and persuasive, also works of poetic beauty.

Course Objectives:  Students will:

  1. Learn and apply the terminology of poetic criticism in their appreciation and evaluation of great works of English poetry (Shakespeare, Milton, Pope, Coleridge, Tennyson, inter alia);
  2. Produce original works of poetry, both in imitation of classic authors and independently;
  3. Understand “parliamentary procedure” and the rules of ordered debate;
  4. Learn to appreciate the “poetic” elements of rhetoric through analysis of famous orations (Henry, Lincoln, Churchill, inter alia.);
  5. Prepare a “miniature” research-paper thesis as a preparation for the senior year.


Course Description: Precalculus is survey of trigonometry and an overview of functions. It includes introduction and familiarization with basic trigonometric, polynomial and logarithmic functions. These functions are used in analyzing the combination and inverting of functions. In the later stages, limits are introduced as an introduction to Calculus.

Course Objectives: Students will:

  1. Recognize the order, design, and beauty in the world around us, both in nature and in man-made inventions;
  2. Recognize uses of trigonometry in cyclical relationships in everyday life;
  3. Manipulated functions in combination with one another;
  4. Derive basic information about functions such as domain, range and asymptotes;
  5. Graph a wide variety functions without use of calculator;
  6. Interpret data presented as equations and graphically precisely;
  7. Apply analytical thinking to new situations and problems;
  8.  Convert from written and oral speech to mathematical equations.


Course Description: Physics is a yearlong overview of motion and energy and it’s interaction with everything in the Universe. The study begins with an introduction of motion in one and two dimensions and vectors. The course then progresses from the basic building blocks of motion to forces and Newton’s laws of motion. The course of study develops these laws into quantifiable descriptions that can be used to study work, energy, and momentum. An in depth analysis of rotational motion follows. The second semester begins with a detailed look at fluid mechanics, heat, and thermodynamics. The rest of the semester is devoted to electricity, magnetism, and subatomic physics.

Course Objectives: Students will:

  1. Understand motion in one and two dimensions and be able to describe same using vector analysis;
  2. Identify the forces affecting the motion of objects and analyze the results;
  3. Understand rotational motion and the effects of gravity on objects in orbit;
  4. Know and understand the various laws governing fluid mechanics and heat transfer;
  5. Know the basics of the four Laws of Thermodynamics and their relationship to heat transfer and entropy;
  6. Will be introduced to the concept of Quantum Physics and its relationship to atomic motion;
  7. Will be introduced to electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetic induction.

New Testament Greek Grammar II

Course Description:  New Testament Greek Grammar II is a comprehensive continuation of New Testament Greek Grammar I as students complete the last few lessons in the textbook along with critical review, and then are exposed to various passages within the New Testament corpus. The course will accentuate syntax in exegesis with special emphasis on aspect in the verb.  The excerpts selected for translation will progress during the year from relatively easy through varieties of moderately easy texts to passages with a higher level of difficulty.  Some assignments will require students to analyze and compare vocabulary, morphology, syntax, and narrative details specific to different authors relating the same event, to produce an accurate, flowing translation according to aspectual distinctions, and at times to wrestle with the theological significance of a passage. During the 3rd quarter, students will undertake a major project on a New Testament passage.  This will involve lexical, morphological and syntactic analysis, translation and the presentation and defense of a theological theme using the hermeneutical principle of the analogy of faith. This will allow students to actively employ the many linguistic principles acquired during their two years of Greek as they work comprehensively on the Greek text. On several occasions during the year, students will be given the opportunity to examine a facsimile of an ancient Greek papyrus fragment from Oxyrhynchus in Egypt.  This is done so that students may detect certain changes in the development of the language and common errors made by users of the language which allows them to view the evolution of ancient Greek from both a synchronic and diachronic perspective.

Course Objectives: Students will:

  1. Value language as a gift from God;
  2. Recognize the reciprocal impact between language and culture;
  3. Detect the general principles of language construction;
  4. Evaluate the lexical and linguistic relationships between Greek, Latin and English;
  5. Explain the difference between tense and aspect in the ancient Greek verbal system and utilize them in accordance with their grammatical context;
  6. Evaluate the development of koine Greek and its relationship to classical Attic, Ionic, Doric and Aeolic dialects within the crucible of the Hellenistic period;
  7. Examine the varied writings of the New Testament, all of which are concerned to present Jesus of Nazareth as Messiah;
  8. Generate an appreciation for great literature as they become involved in the original sources;
  9. Formulate a mature, nuanced approach to the original texts of the New Testament;
  10. Demonstrate a poetic ability in writing and speaking;
  11. Relate the influences of the Greek language and the ancient world of both Greece and the Roman Empire to Western Civilization;
  12. Integrate knowledge of the Greek language with the science of hermeneutics and other disciplines studied;
  13. Develop the processes of induction and deduction through study of Greek;
  14. Expand both Greek and English vocabulary.  

Theology III: Theology from the Reformation to the 20th Century

Course Description: Theology III provides a study of the developments and trajectories of Christian doctrine from the Protestant Reformation of the 16thcentury through the modern theological scene of the 20th century. The theology of some of most influential individuals from these years will be surveyed. Special attention will be given to the Protestant Reformation and the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation, Enlightenment theology, and theological liberalism. Students will be given the opportunity to research their own denominational identity and report on the same to class.

Course Objectives:  Students will:

  1. Memorize portions of Scripture as part of our overall Bible and theology curriculum;
  2. Study, analyze, and debate the role church history plays in contributing to the development of Christian doctrine;
  3. Identify key individuals significant to the history of the church and explain in what ways they contributed to the immediate and lasting context of Christianity;
  4. Identify and explain key formal and theological terms, concepts, and categories;
  5. Be exposed to classic creeds, confessions, and writings relevant to the portion of Christian history studied;
  6. Be encouraged to cultivate respect, understanding, and appreciation for those in Christianity who stand in different traditions from themselves;
  7. Be encouraged to cultivate awe, appreciation, and love for God through the study of theology;
  8. Better discern the ways in which the past has affected the present.

Upper School Choir

Course Description: Composed of all 9th – 12th grade students, students practice proper singing technique and study elements of music theory while learning quality choral literature. Literature is chosen from a variety of musical periods, incorporating different styles and languages. The choir then shares this music with our community, singing for various events throughout the school year.  Music education contributes to a stronger body and mind, and develops valuable life skills such as confidence, self-discipline, responsibility, and cooperation. The Upper School Choir is intended to provide a supportive and fun environment in which to foster growth in all of these areas.